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Government during the Heian period was based on the Ritsuryō (律令) system, which defined a criminal code (律, Ritsu) and an administrative code (令 Ryō). The Taihō-ritsuryō (大宝律令, 701) re-statement established two branches of government: the Department of Worship (神祇官, Jingi-kan) and the Department of State (太政官, Daijō-kan). The Jingi-kan was the higher branch, taking precedence over the Daijō-kan and handled all spiritual, religious, or ritualistic matters. The Daijō-kan handled all secular and administrative matters. Below an attempt to give an overview of the different ministries and offices that were defined in the Code.

Generally, each institute consisted of four layers or ranks (四等官, Shitōkan): Kami (長官), Suke (次官), Jō (判官) and Sakan (主典). A layer could comprise of one or multiple officials or none at all and official's titles of the same layer varied between institutes. For example: the kami (長官) of a Ministry (省, Shō) was called a Minister (卿, Kyō), while that of a Bureau (寮, Ryō) was called Chief (頭, Kami). Below, officials are colored according to their rank within their respective institutes.

Additionally, to view where an institute was located in the capital, click the marker icon ()

Jingi-kan (神祇官) Department of Worship/Divinities/Shinto Affairs

Haku (伯) Daifu (大副) Shōbu (少副) Daiyū (大祐) Shōyū (少祐) Daishi (大史) Shōshi (少史)

Daijō-kan (太政官) Department of State

Gisei-kan (議政官)

Daijō-daijin (太政大臣) Chancellor of the Realm Sadaijin (左大臣) Minister of the Left Udaijin (右大臣) Minister of the Right Naidaijin (内大臣) Minister of the Center Dainagon (大納言) Major Counselor Chūnagon (中納言) Middle Counselor Sangi (参議) Associate Counselor

Sabenkan-kyoku (左弁官局)
Controlling Board of the Left

Sadaiben (左大弁) Major Controller of the Left Sachūben (左中弁) First Assistant Controller of the Left Sashōben (左少弁) Second Assistant Controller of the Left

Ubenkan-kyoku (右弁官局)
Controlling Board of the Right

Udaiben (右大弁) Major Controller of the Right Uchūben (右中弁) First Assistant Controller of the Right Ushōben (右少弁)Second Assistant Controller of the Right

Shōnagon-kyoku (少納言局)

Shōnagon (少納言) Minor Counselor

Sabenkan-kyoku (左弁官局)
Controlling Board of the Left

Sadaishi (左大史) Senior Recorder of the Left Sashōshi (左少史) Junior Recorder of the Left

Ubenkan-kyoku (右弁官局)
Controlling Board of the Right

Udaishi (右大史) Senior Recorder of the Right Ushōshi (右少史) Junior Recorder of the Right

Geki-kyoku (外記局)

Daigeki (大外記) Senior Outer Clerk Shōgeki (少外記) Junior Outer Clerk

Hasshō (八省) Eight Ministries

Nakatsukasa-shō (中務省)
Ministry of the Center/Central Affairs

Kyō (卿) Minister

Chūgū-shiki (中宮職)
Division of the Consort's Household

Ōtoneri-ryō (大舎人寮)
Bureau of Imperial Attendants

Zushō-ryō (図書寮)
Bureau of Drawings and Books

Kura-ryō (内蔵寮)
Bureau of Palace Storehouses

Nuidono-ryō (縫殿寮)
Bureau of the Wardrobe and Court Ladies

Onmyō-ryō (陰陽寮)
Bureau of Divination

Naishō-ryō/Takumi-ryō (内匠寮)
Bureau of Skilled Artisans

Shikibu-shō (式部省)
Ministry of Ceremonial

Kyō (卿) Minister

Daigaku-ryō (大学寮)
Bureau of Education

Jibu-shō (治部省)
Ministry of Ceremonies/Interior/Civil Administration

Kyō (卿) Minister

Uta-ryō (雅楽寮)
Bureau of Traditional Music

Genba-ryō (玄蕃寮)
Bureau of Buddhism and Aliens

Shoryō-ryō (諸陵寮)
Bureau of Imperial Mausoleums

Minbu-shō (民部省)
Ministry of Popular Affairs

Kyō (卿) Minister

Shukei-ryō (主計寮)
Account Office/Bureau of Statistics

Shuzei-ryō (主税寮)
Bureau of Taxation

Hyōbu-shō (兵部省)
Ministry of the War/Military

Kyō (卿) Minister

Gyōbu-shō (刑部省)
Ministry of Justice

Kyō (卿) Minister

Shūgoku-shi (囚獄司)
Office of Prisons

Ōkura-shō (大蔵省)
Ministry of the Treasury

Kyō (卿) Minister

Oribe-shi (織部司)
Office of Weaving

Kunai-shō (宮内省)
Ministry of the Sovereign's Household

Kyō (卿) Minister

Daizen-shiki (大膳職)
Office of the Palace Table

Moku-ryō (木工寮)
Bureau of Carpentry

Ōi-ryō (大炊寮)
Bureau of Palace Kitchens

Tonomo-ryō/Shuden-ryō (主殿寮)
Imperial Palace Keeper's Bureau/Bureau of Grounds

Ten'yaku-ryō (典薬寮)
Bureau of Medicine

Kamon-ryō (掃部寮)
Bureau of Housekeeping

Ōkimi no Tsukasa (正親司)
Imperial Family Office

Naizen-shi (内膳司)
Imperial Table Office

Miki no tsukasa/Zōshu-shi(造酒司)
Office of Sake Brewing

Miki no tsukasa/Zōshu-shi(造酒司)
Office of Sake Brewing

Danjō-dai (弾正台) Board of Censors

In/Kami (尹) Daihitsu/Daisuke (大弼) Shōhitsu/Shōsuke (少弼) Daichū/Daijō (大忠) Shōchū/Shōjō (少忠) Daiso/Daisakan (大疏) Shōso/Shōsakan (少疏)
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